Monday, April 13, 2015



God morning!

We are having another fine and beautiful day here where I live. What a wonderful time of the year—not too hot and not too cold for these old bones! I love it!

What, you may be asking, do bones have to do with the bible? Well, for one when God created us and also all vertebrates He created bones. But there is one bone actually mentioned by name in scripture. You guessed it, the rib; “And God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and He took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof.” Genesis 2:21

There has been some misconceptions surrounding this bit of history so let’s clear those up first. I know there is a belief out there that the word rib actually means “side” and “curved”. Therefore some say God did not take an actual rib but rather the curved spiral of DNA from Adam to make Eve. Well, if you look up the Hebrew word for rib in Genesis 2:21, it is tzalelot and can be translated either way—ribs or sides. However Hebrew words pick up precise meaning from the context of the sentence or paragraph. If you continue reading into Genesis 2:22 (still the same sentence by the way), it reads; “and the rib, which God had taken from Adam…” This time the Hebrew word is tzela which translates to rib. Not side or curved, just rib. So there is no doubt God is speaking of a rib bone.

The other belief about ribs is that men have one less rib than women. Or if not all men, at least Adam did. Well since ribs are one of the most, if not the most interesting bones in our bodies, let’s see if this could be true. The easiest way to figure this out is to count your ribs, then count the ribs of someone you know who is the opposite sex. You will quickly discover the number of ribs is the same. “The number of ribs is determined by the code written in our DNA. God did not change Adam’s DNA; He simply removed one of his ribs to use for the creation of the woman. Thus, all men descended from Adam (and Eve) would have 12 pairs of ribs, even if Adam had one less rib. The same could be said for a man who loses his leg due to an
accident. Would all his children only have one leg? Of course not—the man’s DNA that codes for two legs has not changed.”1 

So how come Adam didn’t have one less rib? After all, God did take a rib from him. Well, as you know if you ever had anything broken, bones can repair themselves. Within a month your bones with knit together to form a solid structure again. But of all the bones in our body, there is only one that can regenerate itself. You guessed it…our rib bones! As a matter of fact, “Ribs are commonly removed during surgeries that require bone grafts in other parts of the body. The rib
is removed from the periosteum (a tissue surrounding the bone) much like a banana would be removed from its peel while keeping most of the peel intact. The periosteum must remain, as it contains osteoblasts which build the new rib bone.”2

Besides this amazing feature, “The function of ribs is threefold. First, they provide protection for the lungs and heart. The ribs more or less form a “cage” around these very important organs. Second, they are one of the few bones that continue to make red marrow (and thus blood cells) in the adult. Third, they serve as attachment points for chest muscles involved in respiration.”3  

God and His infinite wisdom knew all of this and much, much more when He worked on His amazing creations of the universe. Sometimes I feel like a little child looking at awe at the world around me. There is just so much to wonder about…

Until next time, God bless and get out there and enjoy His beautiful creations!
Willow Dressel

This week in the night skies; “Friday, April 17 Callisto occults Ganymede among Jupiter's moons. Dark Callisto crosses in front of Ganymede from 9:27 to 9:37 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time. Their combined light will dim by 1.0 magnitude during the middle of this time. Start watching early to see them moving together into a blend. See Bob King's article Catch the Last Best Antics of Jupiter’s Moons.”4 Make it all one day earlier for Australia and New Zealand and anyone in that area.


Monday, April 6, 2015



Good morning all my fine friends out there!

How has everyone been? I have had a good week--very busy at work and trying to get things ready for spring planting, weeding etc. I have just been busy as a beaver...or should I say ant.

There is a verse in scripture, Proverbs 6: 6-8, which tells us something about ants. “Go to the ant, thou sluggard; consider her ways, and be wise: Which having no guide, overseer, or ruler, Provideth her meat in the summer, and gathereth her food in the harvest.” In Japanese the word "ant" is intricately written by linking two characters. The first one means "insect," the other "loyalty."  It is interesting that God wanted this recorded in the bible for us to look at and “consider”. God created ants and they are amazing. Let’s take a look and consider some of their “ways”.

We all most likely have watched ants at one time or another in our lives, especially when we were kids. An most likely what we noticed most was their industrious nature, always coming and going and looking very busy. It is estimated there are  ten thousand trillion ants worldwide living everywhere except on icy mountain peaks and around the Poles. From underground to treetops, they serve as the chief predators of insects and other invertebrates and the principal scavengers of small dead bodies. One estimate puts all the ants in the world as the same weight as all the humans in the world. Now that’s a lot of ants! And as you would guess, there are many species of ants--over 200. And many of them have unique ways of working. See if you can find your work habits in these industrious creatures...

The carpenter ant is well know for excavating wood that has been damaged by water whether in a home or a dead tree. They make their nests in beams, floor boards, large branches and trunks of trees. Their name comes from they way they chew passageways called galleries inside of wooden structures. This is their main living quarters where they tend to stay during the daylight hours going out at night to hunt for water and food, which can be crumbs on your floor or dead insects in the forest. Any woodworking night owls out there?

Honey Pot ants are the vegetarians, feeding on juices of bruised or broken fruits and nectar from many different types of flowers. They have a unique society in that only some of the ants gorge on the food to the point their abdomen swells to a huge round “ball”. Other ants then extract nourishment from them.

Fire ants are also vegetarians, eating mostly young plants and seeds. However these creatures have a very aggressive nature and
often attack animals and people when the unsuspecting victim gets close to a colony. They are so aggressive that they have been known to kill small animals. Anybody have a super aggressive mannerism? 

Leaf Cutter ants make their living by chewing off  sections of leaves. You can seen lines of them taking these pieces of leaves back to their nest where they are used to make fungi, there main diet. Any mushroom lovers out there? These ants are very socially dependent as they have made their own agricultural system harvesting the fungi. Any farmers out there?

Another type of Leaf Cutter and in called the Lemon Ant. This critter is more of a gardener in that it has the ability to destroy vegetation. 
They live in large clearings in the rainforest called devil’s gardens. In these clearing all but one species of plant in injected by the ants with formic acid. 
In this way the ants deftly remove all plants but the one they utilize for their nests; Duroia hirsute -- sorry I couldn’t find a common name. Now I know there are gardeners out there...including me!

And then there is this critter. Hopefully none of you relate to this species of ant...the Thief ant. These guys make their living by raiding other ants’ nests for food and to steal eggs. 

How about the Crazy ant. It gets its name from the erratic way it runs about with no apparent direction. They feed on a wide variety of food including other insects, grease and sweets, even feeding on the larvae of fleas an flies. Well, I don’t eat insects but I do like sweets, and greasy french fries and I have been known to run around in circles! Lol!

Then there are the Weaver ants. These ants are social insects that
have a complex communication system and make elaborate nests out of living tree-leaves. Anybody like texting and crafts?

And of course I have to mention Army ants...everyone’s nightmare. These ants have an advanced communication system of up to twenty signals. Army ants are highly mobile, moving from nest site to nest site and have a shock-and-awe hunting strategy. Other ants search for food individually, sometimes using scouts. But Army ants set out en masse. Being blind, they can't see what's ahead of
them, but moving in such numbers they easily overwhelm their prey usually other ants and large arthropods, a favorite being wasps. They can also kill, and sometimes will eat lizards, snakes, and frogs that fail to get out of the way. Their attack formation is called a swarm raid (think military infantry). As many as 200,000 ants leave the nest in a swarm that broadens into a fan as wide as 15 yards. The soldiers are a whopping one to two inches long! They have a very important role in their group which consists of protecting the queen, killing and gathering food, and forming attacks on enemy colonies. Soldiers are born with very large
mandibles which they use to kill, carry large objects, and to dig. The mandibles are so huge for their body size that they cannot feed themselves. (Any body builders reading this, lol!) The soldiers rely on the team effort of the worker ants to help feed them.  

One thing that is a running theme in all of these ants; community work. We can learn a lot when we consider the ants! =)

Until next week, take care and God bless!

This week in the night skies; for the northern hemisphere... “April always finds Orion leaning over at dusk low in the southwest, with his three-star belt almost horizontal (depending on your latitude). The belt points left toward bright Sirius, and to the right toward Aldebaran and, farther on, Venus and the Pleiades.”1

For the southern skies;The  Light curve of  Nova Sagittarii 2015 No. 2. It had faded but has now substantialy rebrightened. Althoug still a bit below the peak it is now eaily unaided eye visible again. This nova is well worth watching still, although Moonlight will now make visual observing harder.”2



Tuesday, March 31, 2015



Good afternoon everyone!

How are all my friends out there? I am well but my little doggie is healing from a wound so extra time needs to go to her. And since she is so little, I am spending much of my time bending over!

And that brings me to our topic this week. Bending over, or rather walking upright. And lifting. Treatments for back problems have in the past been based on the idea “that humans at one time walked on all fours and that back problems were produced primarily by complications resulting from humans’ newly evolved upright posture.” It has been a common belief amongst doctors that back problems in today’s humans resulted from our “newly evolved” upright posture on vertebrae that were originally evolved for quadrupedal locomotion. 

W.M. Krogman wrote an article in the 1951 Scientific America that stated when humans started walking upright it resulted in a “terrific mechanical imbalance” and backaches became common. Doctors believe that “Since the spine was ‘deformed’ when humans began to stand and walk erect, (then) Darwinists concluded that the logical treatment for back pain would be to decrease or, ideally, reverse the lordosis curve.”1 The lordosis curve, or more formally known as Cervical and Lumbar Lordosis, is an inward curve—that is to the anterior or front of your body—of the spine. The cervical lordosis is a curve of the cervical spine area (the neck area) and lumbar lordosis is a curve in the lumbar region of the spine (the low back region). Both of these curves are perfectly normal and in fact beneficial. Cervical lordosis helps to stabilize the head  and spine and lumbar lordosis helps to balance the upper torso.
To reduce the lordotic curve, Dr. Paul C. Williams devised a series of exercises now called ‘Williams flexion exercises’ that have been used widely in many medical back treatment programs. The goal of many of these exercises was to decrease, or even reverse, lordosis as much as possible. This therapy was used widely for years in spite of its limited success, partly because it was completely logical—from the evolutionists’ paradigm. Mooney even claims there never has been a scientific study that demonstrated the effectiveness of this or any other treatment that developed from the Darwinist theory of back problems. Physical therapist Smail notes that despite widespread use of the flexion (bending forward) exercises to reduce lordosis, back pain remained a severe problem. This approach often failed, and consequently all too often surgery was used. Unfortunately, the success rate from such surgery was often less than half, and many patients were worse off than before.

“Fortunately, a Wellington, New Zealand physical therapist named Robin McKenzie13–15 discovered that posture exercises that restored full (normal) lordosis actually decreased, or even eventually abolished back pain in many patients. This was the exact opposite of what had been recommended by Williams and other therapists based on Darwinian explanations.”2 

So now a days it is commonly recognized that back problems are not due to evolution gone bad in the upright posture. Well then, what causes back pain? Simple abuses to our bodies such as lack of exercise, poor posture, stress, staying in unusual positions for long periods of time, smoking, and obesity. Can we overcome back pain? The answer is yes. “Now exercise (including brisk walking) and normal sleep patterns are recommended. Research by Sobel and Klein has found that walking was highly beneficial in the vast majority of cases and helpful in the long term for 98% of the 500 cases they studied. Modern treatment is designed to improve both sitting and standing postures, educate patients in correct lifting mechanics, develop good sleep habits, use a firm-but-comfortable
mattress, and most important, to stay in shape with regular physical exercise (including both moderate muscle building and a stretching program). Exercise allows a maximum number of muscles to carry the weight rather than just a few, the latter of which invariably triggers a set of forces that can affect back health adversely. Furthermore, stretching allows for flexibility so the back system can function correctly.”3

I’m sure glad we don’t live in the “dark ages of darwinism”, that is from about 1850 to 1970, before so many scientific discoveries were made that that confirm and support creation and the Bible. God created us and if we would just stick to His instructions, we will always be better off!

Until next time,
Willow Dressel

This week in the night skies; “Friday, April 3 A total eclipse of the Moon happens before or during dawn Saturday morning for the western half of North America; the farther west you are the better. It happens during Saturday evening for Australia and the Far East. This eclipse is barely total and for only about 12 minutes, from about 11:54 to 12:06 April 4th UT (GMT). Partial eclipse begins at 10:15 UT and ends at 13:45 UT. For maps and more, see the April Sky & Telescope, page 50, or the version online: Preview of April 4th’s Total Lunar Eclipse.”4

For the southern skies—“The Full Moon is Saturday April 4, there is a total lunar eclipse at this time. The partial phase of the eclipse begins at 9:15 pm AEDST (8:45 pm ACDST and 6:15 pm AWST) with totality around one and a half  to one and three quarter hours later. This is the last total eclipse seen from Australia until 2018.  Full details for observing the eclipse are here, and hints on photographing the eclipse here.”5



Monday, March 23, 2015


Good day all my fine friends!

How has life been treating you? I hope and pray that whatever life throws your way you will kneel at Jesus’s feet and either thank Him or turn to Him for guidance and protection. Life always turns out better that way.

Speaking of the supernatural, I have been asked questions about UFO’s that I did not address in the blog I wrote a few years ago. Mainly it is about sightings that may seem unexplainable but really do have an explanation.

First you have to remember that a UFO is just an unexplained flying object. This can occur during the day or at night. But most UFOs are spotted either at dusk or at night. Here are several

Satellite flashes and flares: Satellites orbiting the earth do not have a constant brighteness. Rather they usually give off flashes at regular time intervals (but sometimes not so regular).  The flashes are caused by the rotation of the satellite around its axis with it’s metallic surfaces acting as mirrors for the sun. The release of payloads can cause the satellite to veer from its rotation and start to tumble. When this happens the reflected light can change in
intensity and intervals. “Occasionally, an antenna reflects sunlight directly down at Earth, creating a predictable and quickly moving illuminated spot on the surface below of about 10 km (6.2 mi) diameter. To an observer this looks like a bright flash, or flare in the sky, with a duration of a few seconds.

Ranging up to −8 magnitude (rarely to a brilliant −9.5), some of the flares are so bright that they can be seen in the daytime; but they are most impressive at night.”1 To the unknowing observer these flares are UFOs. If you spot a bright flare in the sky I suggest to go to a website or smartphone app that provides location specific information as to when and where in the sky a satellite flare may occur before you cry UFO.

Swamp gas (marsh gas/bog gas): This is a form of biogas (gases produced by the
breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen). Almost all swamp gas forms naturally in wetlands of some sort (such as bogs, marshes and swamps). When rotting vegetation forms a solid crust or cover over the swamp, it prevents oxygen from reaching the organic material trapped below. The natural byproduct of the anaerobic decay process is fermentation which produces methane. This can suspend in liquid particles above the swamp creating a cloud. At times near the surface there is sufficient heat and oxygen tocreate spontaneous combustion and underground fires. When this occurs near the volatile methane it can burn causing strange and often erie illuminations.

Cryptozoology: The last thing I would like to discuss that could be mistaken as a UFO is bioluminescence. David Woetzel of Genesis Park describes in his website searching for living pterosaurs in Papa New Guinea; “The creature appears to resemble the Dimorphodon pterosaur, with the addition of a head crest and dermal bumps. However, the animal is said to have a 15-20ft
wingspan and exhibits a bioluminescent glow. On Wednesday October 27 a large, yellowish glow approximately 20-25% the size of the full moon was observed to fly behind one of the volcanic peaks. The light left no trail and it twinkled around the edges. The whole sighting lasted for only a few seconds, as the light streaked across the horizon and behind Mt. Tolou.”

So as you can see, especially from the photos, if a person didn’t know what these natural phenomena were when they were sighted, they could easily be mistaken for alien, extra terrestrial UFOs.

But God made it clear in Isaiah 45:18 that only earth is to be inhabited; “For thus saith the Lord that created the heavens; God himself that formed the earth and made it; he hath established it, he created it not in vain, he formed it to be inhabited: I am the Lord; and there is none else.”

Until next time,
God bless and take care,
Willow Dressel

This week in the night skies: Thursday, March 25 is the first-quarter moon.

For the southern lats there is an aurora watch and geomagnetic alert for March 22 and 23. For more info go to


Monday, March 9, 2015



Good day you all! I had to say the Australian greetings since my son just went on a visit to the “land down under”. He and his wife are just having the time of their lives living in New Zealand and taking opportunities (like visiting Australia) as they present themselves. I am so proud of the two of them and happy they are doing so well.

Speaking of the land down under way on the other side of the ocean…how did the fresh water fish survive the global flood? Let’s take a look…

Some Christians have trouble believing the global flood event because they think such a catastrophe would have wiped out all the fresh water fish (because Noah would not be able to care for an
aquarium aboard the Ark). It is sad that this would be a stumbling block for believers because there is a very good explanation!

There are a few conditions to look at before we start. First, how salty were the oceans way back in Noah’s day before the great deluge? Well, to that my friends, we only have a few clues. For example, early in the fossil record laid down by the global flood, there are echinoderms which live only in salty waters. However to what degree the pre-flood waters were salty is an unknown. 

Evolutionists claim that it took millions of years for the oceans to get to their current degree of saltiness and that it was this slow environmental change that allowed the marine creatures to adapt to their ever saltier environment. But is this true? At the current rate of salt build-up, it would only take about 62 million years for the oceans to have accumulated salts to their current salinity level.

But this doesn’t take into account any cataclysmic events--like a global flood. And it assumes that all oceans were once fresh water. “We cannot, of course, be sure, because the Bible is silent about the salinity of the ocean waters at the conclusion of the creation week.
We are told that when God created the earth on Day One, it was covered in water, which He divided on Day Two. It may be safe to assume this was all freshwater because Genesis 1:2 reveals this water was formless and ‘empty’, (perhaps meaning void or pure).

However, on Day Three God raised the land, and the covering waters were gathered together to form the seas. Thus the earth’s land surface was shaped by erosion by these retreating waters, no doubt carrying salts with them. So it’s possible a lot of salt may have been introduced to the pre-Flood oceans by this means.”1 And again this would have been repeat as the waters drained from new uplifting land masses after The Flood, caring once again dissolved salts into the oceans.

It is reasonable to conclude that pre-flood water were salty to a minor degree, that the waters which poured out in huge quantities when the “fountains of the great deep” (Genesis 7:11) broke open were fresh water, and that as the flood waters receded into the new ocean basins they carried enormous amounts of dissolved minerals, especially salts, with them. 

So what about the creatures that live in these waters? Let’s take a quick look at fish biology: “...freshwater fish tend to absorb water because the saltiness of their body fluids draws water into their bodies (by osmosis), whereas saltwater fish tend to lose water from their bodies because the surrounding water is saltier than their body fluids.

The global scale of the Flood cataclysm produced gigantic problems affecting the very survival of many species. Indeed, the fossil record contains many groups of aquatic organisms that became extinct during the Flood deposition of the sedimentary rock layers. Some organisms would have simply succumbed to the trauma of the turbulence, being swept away and effectively buried alive.

Others would have found their suitable living spaces destroyed, and hence died for lack of appropriate habitats. Too much freshwater for marine-dependent organisms or vice versa would have killed those unable to adapt. However, not only are there such salt versus freshwater problems for aquatic organisms, but also problems of temperature, light, oxygen, contaminants, and nutritional conditions.”2

We will take a more in depth look at these problems next week…until then, look at fresh and salt water creatures with a sense of awe, for it was amazing God that allowed them to overcome horrific circumstances! Find out more next week...

Until then, take care and God bless!
Willow Dressel

This week in the night skies; for the northern hemisphere…”Saturday, March 14, On the traditional divide between the winter and spring sky is dim Cancer, marked this year by Jupiter. Wintry Gemini is to its west, and Leo of spring is to its east. Don't be too distracted by Jupiter; Cancer also hosts the Beehive Star Cluster, M44, in its middle. Look for it 6° to Jupiter's upper right after dark. That's about the width of a binocular's field of view. Algol should be in mideclipse around 9 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time.

For the southern skies; “Venus is prominent in the twilight evening sky. Mars is lost in the twilight. Jupiter is the brightest object in the late evening sky. Saturn is in the head of the Scorpion and is visited by the waning Moon on March 12. Mercury is prominent in the morning sky.”3


Monday, March 2, 2015



Hey everyone! How are you all today? What’s the weather like there? Here it is raining, raining, raining. Don’t get me wrong I’m not complaining, the water is so good for the land bringing life sustaining moisture. It is wonderful!

Speaking of which, we who understand creation science (which is history as it happened, not as some people would like to rewrite it) know that coal and oil deposits came from the great Noachian Flood. A cataclysmic global event that devastated the entire world. So when we hear of discoveries like a fossil fragment of a shark jaw bone (we understand that sharks are cartilaginous-but this article uses the word “bone” for understanding purposes) 
discovered in coal, we also understand how it got there.

However to evolutionists it presents a big problem. You see secular science falsely teaches that the coal deposits formed from millions of years of decaying plant debris at the bottom of huge ancient swamps. When the debris is partially decomposed in these oxygen deprived swamps, they turn into layers of peat which is a soft, brown material in which the structures of plants can still be quite readily recognized. Evolutionists believe that when these peat layers are shallowly buried, the peat changes to lignite which is a soft, brown coal. 

The big problems? Well, as far as anyone can tell, there are no huge sharks “swimming” around in swamps. Not only that, but smaller 
fossils of sea shells can also be found in some coal mines. How can these marine creatures be affiliated with fresh water bog areas? The answer is simple. They can’t. It doesn’t fit. And then there is the root problem. In modern peat bogs, roots of surrounding vegetation thoroughly penetrate the peat. On the other hand, coal seams have no roots in them at all, not even a trace.

“Geologist Stephen Austin proposed an alternative scenario for coal formation, one that fits the data much better than the swamp idea: A catastrophic flood event ripped up whole ancient forests, and then transported plant and animal debris into low-lying areas. A subsequent series of tsunami-like waves then carried sediments over the top of the plant debris.

“In the context of a worldwide flood, as described in Scripture and relayed in countless legends among people groups around the globe, sea creatures would have mixed with land plants as seawater flooded onto the continents. And the associated rapid transport and deposition of plant material would explain both the absence of peat-like roots in coal deposits and the flat, sharp contacts between coal seams and sedimentary rock layers immediately above and below them. These flat layers look nothing like the cross-section of swamp peat soils, but they could have been deposited together as part of a single massive watery catastrophe.”1

And then there is the size of coal seams. “One continuous Pennsylvanian coal seamextends from…western Kentucky across Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, southern Iowa, Kansas, and into northeast Oklahoma. Transporting that much plant matter seems to demand a watery catastrophe on the scale of a worldwide flood as a sufficient cause.

“The chief characteristics of coal seams—including their composition, layout, and extent—are amply explained by the massive energy associated with a global flood as described in Genesis. And what clearer indication could there be of the insufficiency of regional swamp models than marine fossils such as a shark jaw embedded in the coal? The Genesis flood account still holds the best answer.”2

Don’t you just love science!

Until next time, enjoy God’s beautiful world!
God bless,

This week in the night skies; full moon this Thursday. There are several occults happening this week among Jupiter’s moons. See to get the details!


Monday, February 23, 2015


Hello all you fine folks out there! So good to hear from you and get some feed back.Thanks for the words of encouragement--glad you like my blog! 

And speaking of blogs…it rhymes with bog, and that will get us going today. Lol! So by the title, you can see we are going to delve into some seriously interesting info. But first let me clarify a few things…
Dinosaur tracks in coal ceiling. The one on the left is the largest found measuring 4 ½ feet in length
with a stride of 12 feet. 

What exactly is a bog. When someone talks about a bog they are speaking of peat bogs. Peat bogs, or swamps, have dense, extensive vegetation growing in them on shallow or higher grounds. As this biomass decays it collects in the stagnant water. It deteriorates and has a “coffee ground” type texture. Roots of trees and other vegetation and even animal burrows extend throughout the bogs. 

Secular scientists believe that bogs were the precursor to coal. However there are some problems with this theory. First, the matrix of coal is very fine grained (not coffee textured) and tend to surround abundant sheets of altered bark giving coal a layered look. Very infrequently are roots present (as opposed to bogs with extensive roots and animal burrows present). Also coal seams have an unusual constant thickness with bark sheets that are correspond to the width and height of a tree. “Often a knife-edge contact between the coal and the layers above and below can be seen. Most often the adjacent layers are shale or limestone, both "marine" deposits which necessitate quite a different environment of deposition from a terrestrial swamp. 

“...[there is a]  sharp contact between the coal and the adjacent layers. If a swamp existed above sea level, but then was inundated by the sea to receive overlying marine sediments, then uplifted to become a swamp again, and the cycle repeated, one would think there would be some erosional channels or variation in peat thickness? How could they be so flat and of constant thickness, and how could there be such precise contacts above and below?”1 What happened to all the erosion during the millions of years it took to form?

Like I said, big problems. A more reasonable explanation is great masses of decaying plant material that collected in large floating mats during the great Noachian Flood sank and compressed into coal. 

So how did dinosaur tracks get into the coal? Let’s take a closer look…

When the global flood occurred, the whole earth did not become covered with water immediately. As a matter of fact, Genesis 7:17-24 tells us “For forty days the flood kept coming on the earth, and as the waters increased they lifted the ark high above the earth. The waters rose and increased greatly on the earth, and the ark floated on the surface of the water. They rose greatly on the earth, and all the high mountains under the entire heavens were covered. The waters rose and covered the mountains to a depth of more than fifteen cubits. Every living thing that moved on land perished—birds, livestock, wild animals, all the creatures that swarm over the earth, and all mankind. Everything on dry land that had the breath of life in its nostrils died. Every living thing on the face of the earth was wiped out; people and animals and the creatures that move along the ground and the birds were wiped from the earth. Only Noah was left, and those with him in the ark. The waters flooded the earth for a hundred and fifty days.”

Scripture says the waters increased and the ark floated. Thus the waters took awhile to cover the earth. So as the waters covered the earth, there would have been tides and title waves that would cover the high lands and then expose it again until finally everything was covered in water. So as the dinosaurs ran over spongy beds of decaying vegetation they would have left footprints. Then due to the movement of the waters as described above, the footprints
would become filled with sand and marine deposits. Fairly rapidly, thousands of feet of additional decaying sediment were laid down and compressed by additional hundreds of feet of marine deposits which became the shale and limestone found surrounding coal. 

So the sand and/or marine deposits that settled within the dinosaur tracks were compressed and solidified into sand or limestone. As people mined the coal following seams, the lime stone tracks would protrude downward from the ceiling into the mine tunnel. When geologists brushed away the coal residue, the white sand or limestone that filled the original track became exposed leaving an awe inspiring worm’s eye view of some of the last animals to stay alive form the Former World. Tracks of hadrosaurs, albertosaurs, ceratosaurs, theropods, and dinosauropodes, and more have all been identified.

These tracks are so numbers in places that after miners had been
seriously injured or even killed, some of the tracks have been bolted to the ceilings to keep them from falling. Many have been taken out of the mine roofs for safety reasons and miners take home the smaller ones to use as door stops! 

What a way to preserve history! God thinks of everything! =)

Until next time,
Willow Dressel

This week in the night skies: for the northern lats... Saturday, February 28 Early this evening, the dark limb of the waxing gibbous Moon will occult (cover) the 3.6-magnitude star Lambda Geminorum for North America east of the Mississippi and north of the deepest South.
Some times: central Massachusetts, 8:00 p.m. EST; Washington DC, 7:56 p.m. EST; Chicago, 6:31 p.m. CST (in twilight); Kansas City, 6:21 p.m. CST (in twilight). See map and detailed timetables of both the disappearance and the (unobservable) reappearance; be careful not to mix these up when scrolling down the table.”2

For the everyone; the first quarter moon in Thursday February 26.