Monday, March 2, 2015

SHARK JAW FOUND IN COAL, MARINE ANIMALS IN COAL, SEA SHELLS IN COAL, PENNSYLVANIAN COAL SEAM, PEAT BOGS, GLOBAL FLOOD, FLOOD LEGENDS, STEPHEN AUSTIN,

SHARK REMAINS FOUND IN COAL?



Hey everyone! How are you all today? What’s the weather like there? Here it is raining, raining, raining. Don’t get me wrong I’m not complaining, the water is so good for the land bringing life sustaining moisture. It is wonderful!

Speaking of which, we who understand creation science (which is history as it happened, not as some people would like to rewrite it) know that coal and oil deposits came from the great Noachian Flood. A cataclysmic global event that devastated the entire world. So when we hear of discoveries like a fossil fragment of a shark jaw bone (we understand that sharks are cartilaginous-but this article uses the word “bone” for understanding purposes) 
discovered in coal, we also understand how it got there.

However to evolutionists it presents a big problem. You see secular science falsely teaches that the coal deposits formed from millions of years of decaying plant debris at the bottom of huge ancient swamps. When the debris is partially decomposed in these oxygen deprived swamps, they turn into layers of peat which is a soft, brown material in which the structures of plants can still be quite readily recognized. Evolutionists believe that when these peat layers are shallowly buried, the peat changes to lignite which is a soft, brown coal. 

The big problems? Well, as far as anyone can tell, there are no huge sharks “swimming” around in swamps. Not only that, but smaller 
fossils of sea shells can also be found in some coal mines. How can these marine creatures be affiliated with fresh water bog areas? The answer is simple. They can’t. It doesn’t fit. And then there is the root problem. In modern peat bogs, roots of surrounding vegetation thoroughly penetrate the peat. On the other hand, coal seams have no roots in them at all, not even a trace.

“Geologist Stephen Austin proposed an alternative scenario for coal formation, one that fits the data much better than the swamp idea: A catastrophic flood event ripped up whole ancient forests, and then transported plant and animal debris into low-lying areas. A subsequent series of tsunami-like waves then carried sediments over the top of the plant debris.

“In the context of a worldwide flood, as described in Scripture and relayed in countless legends among people groups around the globe, sea creatures would have mixed with land plants as seawater flooded onto the continents. And the associated rapid transport and deposition of plant material would explain both the absence of peat-like roots in coal deposits and the flat, sharp contacts between coal seams and sedimentary rock layers immediately above and below them. These flat layers look nothing like the cross-section of swamp peat soils, but they could have been deposited together as part of a single massive watery catastrophe.”1


And then there is the size of coal seams. “One continuous Pennsylvanian coal seamextends from…western Kentucky across Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, southern Iowa, Kansas, and into northeast Oklahoma. Transporting that much plant matter seems to demand a watery catastrophe on the scale of a worldwide flood as a sufficient cause.

“The chief characteristics of coal seams—including their composition, layout, and extent—are amply explained by the massive energy associated with a global flood as described in Genesis. And what clearer indication could there be of the insufficiency of regional swamp models than marine fossils such as a shark jaw embedded in the coal? The Genesis flood account still holds the best answer.”2

Don’t you just love science!

Until next time, enjoy God’s beautiful world!
God bless,
Willow

This week in the night skies; full moon this Thursday. There are several occults happening this week among Jupiter’s moons. See http://www.skyandtelescope.com/observing/weeks-sky-glance-feb-27-march-7/ to get the details!

References;

Monday, February 23, 2015

DINOSAUR (DRAGON) TRACKS PROTRUDE DOWNWARD 
FROM THE ROOF OF COAL MINES 


Hello all you fine folks out there! So good to hear from you and get some feed back.Thanks for the words of encouragement--glad you like my blog! 

And speaking of blogs…it rhymes with bog, and that will get us going today. Lol! So by the title, you can see we are going to delve into some seriously interesting info. But first let me clarify a few things…
Dinosaur tracks in coal ceiling. The one on the left is the largest found measuring 4 ½ feet in length
with a stride of 12 feet. 

What exactly is a bog. When someone talks about a bog they are speaking of peat bogs. Peat bogs, or swamps, have dense, extensive vegetation growing in them on shallow or higher grounds. As this biomass decays it collects in the stagnant water. It deteriorates and has a “coffee ground” type texture. Roots of trees and other vegetation and even animal burrows extend throughout the bogs. 

Secular scientists believe that bogs were the precursor to coal. However there are some problems with this theory. First, the matrix of coal is very fine grained (not coffee textured) and tend to surround abundant sheets of altered bark giving coal a layered look. Very infrequently are roots present (as opposed to bogs with extensive roots and animal burrows present). Also coal seams have an unusual constant thickness with bark sheets that are correspond to the width and height of a tree. “Often a knife-edge contact between the coal and the layers above and below can be seen. Most often the adjacent layers are shale or limestone, both "marine" deposits which necessitate quite a different environment of deposition from a terrestrial swamp. 

“...[there is a]  sharp contact between the coal and the adjacent layers. If a swamp existed above sea level, but then was inundated by the sea to receive overlying marine sediments, then uplifted to become a swamp again, and the cycle repeated, one would think there would be some erosional channels or variation in peat thickness? How could they be so flat and of constant thickness, and how could there be such precise contacts above and below?”1 What happened to all the erosion during the millions of years it took to form?

Like I said, big problems. A more reasonable explanation is great masses of decaying plant material that collected in large floating mats during the great Noachian Flood sank and compressed into coal. 

So how did dinosaur tracks get into the coal? Let’s take a closer look…

When the global flood occurred, the whole earth did not become covered with water immediately. As a matter of fact, Genesis 7:17-24 tells us “For forty days the flood kept coming on the earth, and as the waters increased they lifted the ark high above the earth. The waters rose and increased greatly on the earth, and the ark floated on the surface of the water. They rose greatly on the earth, and all the high mountains under the entire heavens were covered. The waters rose and covered the mountains to a depth of more than fifteen cubits. Every living thing that moved on land perished—birds, livestock, wild animals, all the creatures that swarm over the earth, and all mankind. Everything on dry land that had the breath of life in its nostrils died. Every living thing on the face of the earth was wiped out; people and animals and the creatures that move along the ground and the birds were wiped from the earth. Only Noah was left, and those with him in the ark. The waters flooded the earth for a hundred and fifty days.”

Scripture says the waters increased and the ark floated. Thus the waters took awhile to cover the earth. So as the waters covered the earth, there would have been tides and title waves that would cover the high lands and then expose it again until finally everything was covered in water. So as the dinosaurs ran over spongy beds of decaying vegetation they would have left footprints. Then due to the movement of the waters as described above, the footprints
would become filled with sand and marine deposits. Fairly rapidly, thousands of feet of additional decaying sediment were laid down and compressed by additional hundreds of feet of marine deposits which became the shale and limestone found surrounding coal. 

So the sand and/or marine deposits that settled within the dinosaur tracks were compressed and solidified into sand or limestone. As people mined the coal following seams, the lime stone tracks would protrude downward from the ceiling into the mine tunnel. When geologists brushed away the coal residue, the white sand or limestone that filled the original track became exposed leaving an awe inspiring worm’s eye view of some of the last animals to stay alive form the Former World. Tracks of hadrosaurs, albertosaurs, ceratosaurs, theropods, and dinosauropodes, and more have all been identified.

These tracks are so numbers in places that after miners had been
seriously injured or even killed, some of the tracks have been bolted to the ceilings to keep them from falling. Many have been taken out of the mine roofs for safety reasons and miners take home the smaller ones to use as door stops! 

What a way to preserve history! God thinks of everything! =)

Until next time,
Willow Dressel

This week in the night skies: for the northern lats... Saturday, February 28 Early this evening, the dark limb of the waxing gibbous Moon will occult (cover) the 3.6-magnitude star Lambda Geminorum for North America east of the Mississippi and north of the deepest South.
Some times: central Massachusetts, 8:00 p.m. EST; Washington DC, 7:56 p.m. EST; Chicago, 6:31 p.m. CST (in twilight); Kansas City, 6:21 p.m. CST (in twilight). See map and detailed timetables of both the disappearance and the (unobservable) reappearance; be careful not to mix these up when scrolling down the table.”2

For the everyone; the first quarter moon in Thursday February 26.

References:

http://allanmccollum.net/allanmcnyc/reprints/essentials.html

Monday, February 16, 2015

COAL, METAL IN COAL, GEAR FOUND IN COAL, VLADIVOSTOK, CHERNOGORODSKIY MINES, KHAKASIS REGION, ALUMINUM AND MAGNESIUM, VALERY BRIER, DMITRY

MORE DISCOVERIES IN COAL

Good morning! How are all you fine folks out there? Here in the northern hemisphere time is rapidly marching us toward spring and in the southern latitudes time is marching all you wonderful people toward beautiful autumn! 

Speaking of time, coal deposits are one of the physical “evidences” utilized by secular scientists at “proof” of an old earth (millions of years). But of course they are stumped, and often ignore anomalies that occur within coal deposits. 
Map of coal mine area and where lump of coal with metal was found.

Let’s take a look at two physical objects that indeed prove these evolutionists wrong…

Chernogorodskiy coal mine
A Pennsylvanian coal deposit from the Chernogorodskiy mines of the Khakasis region north of Mongolia has given up a secrete. Coal from this mine is distributed to several areas including all the way to Vladivostok, Russia. In this coastal city, a Dmitry was adding coal to his fire when he noticed a piece of metal sticking up out of
the lump of coal. Upon closer examination he saw that the metal had teeth such as one would find in a geared wheel. Luckily he didn’t throw the piece into the fire but rather brought it to nearby scientists. “According to international Russian news source Komsomolskaya Pravda, biologist Valery Brier helped analyze the odd-shaped object. X-ray diffraction revealed that it was mostly aluminum with about two to four percent magnesium. This unique alloy is not generally produced today. And Brier noted that refined aluminum implies high technology.”1 

lump of coal
When finding like this are discovered, it is extremely difficult if not impossible for secular scientists to explain. So what do they do? Often they turn to non-scientific explanations such as intelligent aliens or time travel. But there is another reasonable explanation. We have a reliable, ancient source that has documented everything from the creation of the universe to the future. It is, of course, the Bible--dictated by the Intelligent designer Himself. And He has told us that in the pre-Flood world, people mined and refined metal (Genesis 4:22). This all makes sense because scientifically speaking radioactive carbon-14 disappears by radioactive decay in under 90,000 years, a significantly large difference from the evolution assumption of 300 million years. It is reasonable to conclude that these artifacts were produced by people who lived prior to and at the same time that vast forests were catastrophically buried by a global flood to become coal. 


Metal gear can been seen protruding from coal in upper right photo. 
Next week we will look at something even more interesting…dinosaur tracks found in coal. What? Tune in next week to find out!

God bless and take care,
Willow Dressel

This week in the night skies; for everyone, Feb 19 is the new moon. For the northern lats; “Juno, the 3rd-discovered asteroid, was at opposition three weeks ago but is now better placed for evening viewing. It's a little west of the head of Hydra (which is west of Jupiter) and magnitude 8.5. With your telescope, work your way to its exact position using the chart in the February Sky & Telescope, page 50. Also on Friday, February 20 Venus, the thin crescent Moon, and little Mars form a tight bunch in the west-southwest during and after dusk, as shown above. They fit in a circle just 2° across at the times of dusk for most of North America.”2

For the southern lats; “Jupiter  is now easily seen  in the late evening sky. It is the brightest object above the north-eastern horizon when twilight ends. It is not far from the bright star Regulus in the sickle of Leo (this forms the head of the constellation of the  Lion). Jupiter was  at opposition, when it is biggest and brightest in our sky, on the 7th, but it will be an
Photo from Astroblog
excellent object for may weeks to come. Jupiter is visible all night and is high enough for decent telescopic observation from around 11 pm, although its visibility will improve in the coming weeks. Jupiter's Moons will be putting on a good display in both binoculars and small telescopes. On the 14th Io and its shadow transits the face of Jupiter from around the end of twilight for about an hour, adn on the 17th Ganymede and its shadow transits from around 2:30 am.”3

References:

Sunday, February 8, 2015

RED SHIFT, REDSHIFT, CREATION, DOPPLER, GALAXIES, NEBULAS, STARS, THE FIRST FOUR DAYS, SPACE EXPANSION, ASTRONOMERS, SUPERLUMINAL SPEEDS,

RED SHIFT AND CREATION WEEK

Hi guys and gals! I just spent a wonderful week with my sister and four other sisters in Christ. I really needed the break and I feel refreshed and ready to shift back and tackle life once again.

So our question from last week was; can the Redshift-Distance method be explain scientifically in relation to Creation week? 

Because Creator God was there in the beginning, and wisely recorded the creation of the universe, the answer to the above question is without a doubt, yes! Let’s take a closer look.

Genesis 1:16-17 tells us that on the fourth day the stars were made light sources and were “set” in their relative locations “to give light upon the earth,”. This would also include, galaxies, nebulas and other light phenomena. But how did they get there?

We know from Gods infallible word in Psalms 104 verse 2 that the universe is expanding (“[God] who stretches out the heavens like a curtain:”) and that is exactly what we see when we study the stars. Remember almost all galaxies are redshifted indicating that the universe is expanding. Quick review; a red shift in astronomy is related to how far away a galaxy (or star) is from earth. The farther from earth the longer the wave length and therefore the redder the galaxy or star looks. 

Delmar Dobberpulh, author of The First Four Days (WinePressPublishing, Enumclaw, WA, 2011. P160.), writes, “The speculation is that the measured redshift occurred during a single twenty-four-hour day of fast time. This occurred before God fixed the location of stars and galaxies at the end of the fourth day. In simple terms, what observers have reported as million or billion years of development occurred all in one day of fast time . The observed process rates of the events on that day were slowed by millions or billions of times in the light that is received on Earth. This slowing is caused by time dilation and the space warping between the galaxies and Earth. It is like a movie made in regular time and played back in slow motion. This effect can also be used to explain any development of stars from one type to the next such as the neutron star formed in an event like a supernova. These events also took place at different times on the fourth day. 

“Instead of just unexplainable space expansion along the path light traveled to Earth, the 4-D space-time was supernaturally warped on the fourth day. This warping effect involved both space and time, both of which are directly related to light speed and gravity. Whether it was the spatial distance or the size of the intervals of time that changed along the path cannot be determined from a measurement made on light arriving on Earth. If time dilation occurred, the observed redshift could be the well-understood Doppler shifting…due to their regular Doppler motion relative to Earth. Theoretically, the Hubble flow can only be detected at the great distances that lie between galaxies. 

“The Creation-Making-model as just described as superluminal speeds and accelerated process rates still taking place on the fourth day after the stars started shining. Then time dilation and space warping combined to present a slow-motion picture of a galaxy on that day to Earth. The light bringing the information started out at a greatly increases speed as slowed as it traveled toward the center of the universe. It slowed further as it entered the gravity of the galaxy and then the solar system. Astronomers have there fore observed the accelerated or fast time processes by the light that has slowed down to its present speed on Earth. If the speed of light slowed, then the process rates of events observed would also appear slowed to their normal rates on Earth. A day of accelerated process rates of events in fast time would look like millions or billions of days of normal process rate of events in slow time on Earth. The events such as supernovas, gamma ray bursts, and pulsars would appear at the same rates as if they were taking place nearby in the galaxy and not billions of light years away. 

“Their motion away from Earth at the superluminal speeds would cause the redshift of spectral lines from any galaxy or quasar during a very short fast-time period on the fourth day of creation. Because the redshift is related to the distance from Earth, the galaxies could have been moving away at different rates, depending on that distance. The light that reached Earth carried the original Doppler-shift information of the source’s accelerated motion but presented it in slow motion to the observer in his slower time.”

Please note this is also a theory and a model. Since we have not
been able (yet) to travel to even the nearest galaxy (the andromeda galaxy), creation scientist also must make some inferences. The difference is that we have a recorded account of the creation of the universe. Thus when we look at the physical evidence it is easy to see how it relates to the recorded account in scripture and we don’t have to continue to make inferences upon inferences. 

And where is Jesus in all of this? Why He is right there... “For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse:” (Romans 1:20).

We never have to fear for God (the trinity) will never forsake us. Stand steadfast in the faith my dear brothers and sisters, stand steadfast.

Until next time, God bless and take care.
Willow Dressel

This week in the night skies; for the northern lats; “Zenith star. If you're in the world's mid-northern latitudes, bright Capella passes straight overhead, or nearly so, around 7 or 8 p.m. (depending on how far west or east you are in your time zone). It goes exactly through your zenith if you're at latitude 46° north: for example Portland, Oregon; Montreal; central France.
And whenever Capella passes highest, Rigel in Orion's foot is always due south.”1

For the southern lats; “Jupiter is now visible all night long, rising in the east as Venus sets in the west. Easily visible in the evening as the brightest object in the north-eastern skies, it is best for telescopic views, being high enough above the horizon murk and turbulence, for around 11 pm local time on. It is highest around 1 am local daylight saving time (midnight local standard time) above the northern horizon. Aside from its obvious brightness, Jupiter is easy to find as it is close to the bright star Regulus, the brightest star in the constellation of Leo.  Regulus forms the handle of the hook-shaped asterism of the sickle of Leo.”2 It is a great time to look for Jupiter’s moons as it is in near opposition (when it looks the largest).

References:

Monday, January 26, 2015

RED SHIFT, ASTRONOMY, WAVE LENGTH, DOPPLER'S EFFECT, EVOLUTIONARY STANDARD THEORY, EXPANSION OF SPACE, HUBBLE FLOW, THEORY OF RELATIVITYEX

RED SHIFT

How is everyone this week? I’ve been wonderful and so has my family. Though it is a busy time of the year getting taxes together, it certainly is not as busy as the holiday season and it is nice to have a few minutes here and there as a breather. Sometimes after I park the car when I get home late in the evening, I stop and gaze at the heavens. The stars and familiar constellations are awe striking and comforting at the same time.

So let’s continue with red shift. Remember a red shift in astronomy is related to how far away a galaxy (or star) is from earth. The farther from earth the longer the wave length and therefore the redder the galaxy looks. Almost all galaxies are redshifted indicating that the universe is expanding. We understand this is true not only by the physical evidence but also that it is written in scripture (Psalm 104:2).

Depiction of expanding universe.
But what of the evolutionist? Can’t these redshifted galaxies also prove the big bang theory? Secular astronomers “explain the redshift relationship to distance between galaxies by what is called the Hubble flow. However, the Hubble flow has not been directly detected and remains only theoretical [just like the big bang theory]. It was based on assumptions, because it is impossible to travel to another galaxy to make any direct measurement. The main assumptions are that light speed in a vacuum [such as outer space] remains a constant everywhere [in other words not effected by electromagnetic fields like everything else is] and that all natural processes take place at the same rate throughout the universe [it would not include such things as the Theory of Relativity where time decreases as gravity continues to decrease and/or speed increases].



Theory of General Relativity
“According to the evolutionary Standard Theory, the expansion of space itself during the time light traveled from a distant galaxy to Earth caused the Hubble flow redshift. The expansion of space supposedly stretched the light waves to longer wavelengths, causing the light to redden. Neither the expansion of space nor the force it exerted on light to stretch the wavelength has ever been detected or demonstrated. It was proposed as an explanation of the Redshift-Distance method that supported the Big Bang model of evolutionary development of the universe.”1 (Emphasis mine).

In other words the evolutionists created a picture, then came up with different ideas to fit the picture. I have a better solution. There is a book written--dictated--by a super natural Being, a Being above and beyond the natural laws He created. A book in which He left information written in a form for all generation to understand, without a doubt, about His creations. Creation scientists also come up with theories (because some things cannot be repeated--such as the creation of the universe), but are based on the Creators documentation (rather than man’s ideas) and physical evidence of that recorded creation event. Big difference. 

So can the Redshift-Distance method be explain scientifically in relation to Creation week? The answer is yes! 



Check it out next time…until then God bless and take care,
Willow Dressel

Photo of red-shifted galaxies. The more red coloring the more distant the galaxy.
This week in the night skies;February 6th the moon shows half its face in brilliant sunlight and half in the inky darkness of outer space.

References:
1Dobberpuhl, Delmar, The First Four Days, WinePress Publishing, Enumclaw, WA. 2011. Pp. 159.

RED SHIFT, DOPPLERS EFFECT, HUBBLE’S LAW, GALAXIES, EDWIN HUBBLE, ASTRONOMY, DISTANT GALXIES, GALAXY, EXPANDING UNIVERSE, BIG BANG, CREATION WEEK

HUBBLE’S LAW AND RED SHIFT

Hello all my fine friends! How have you been this week? We all here have been fine. The winter storms have passed by and once again I can see the stars shining bright at night.

And speaking of stars…I am going to continue with astronomy for the next several weeks. I’m sure most of you have heard of the space telescope Hubble launched into low earth orbit in 1990. It was named after American astronomer Edwin N. Hubbell. Less well known is the natural law named after this same man; Hubble’s Law. So what exactly is this law? 

“Astronomers understand Hubble’s Law as being a result of the expansion of the universe. As the light waves travel, the space in which they are traveling is being stretched out; so, the wavelength of the light is increased. The longer the light has been traveling, the more its wavelength is increased. This is why more distant galaxies are much more redshifted than nearby ones.”1
Expanding universe.


Depiction of red and blue shifted and stationary galaxies.
“Edwin Hubble discovered the observed relationship between redshift of light and distance to a galaxy in the 1920s. His initial observations and the data he collected on galaxies were the first to establish that there are galaxies beyond the Milky Way galaxy. Then he went on to show that the brighter galaxies were not as red as the dimmer galaxies. He further determined that the brighter galaxies were closer to Earth than the dimmer galaxies that contained greater redshifted spectral lines.”2 And this, in a nutshell, is Hubble’s Law.

Other methods are used as well as a check and balance for the accuracy of each other. For example, another method utilized in trying to determined distant planet movement is the Doppler Effect. Perhaps you are most familiar with this in sound waves. We can hear a car, train, plane or even someone panting as they are coming toward us. But as they come even with us and then move away from us the sound changes. This is due to the sound waves spreading out and therefore the pitch of the sound goes down as the object leaves us.

Doppler effect.
“The Doppler Effect is something that happens to waves when the source of the waves is moving (such as when a star moves away from Earth). Note that Hubble’s Law is not due to the Doppler Effect but there is a Doppler Effect on the light from stars and galaxies. For the very largest distance scales, the Doppler Effect would be much smaller than the redshift effect from the expansion of space…Light is affected the same way if a star is moving away from Earth. Thus, a star moving away from Earth causes the frequency or color of the light to shift toward the red—or down in frequency. If a star is moving toward Earth, its frequency is shifted higher, toward the blue end of the spectrum. Within our own galaxy, about half of the stars are shifted toward the blue, and half are shifted toward the red. We know the light is shifted because we can compare the light spectrum from objects in space to the light emitted by known substances in a laboratory.
Stars can be red/blue shifted or they can get their coloring from the gases that are burning.

“Almost all galaxies are shifted toward the red. Furthermore, the larger the redshift, the greater the object's distance from us. This is exactly what we would expect if the entire universe is expanding, and the light is redshifted as a result of that expansion.”3 

And as creation scientists we know from God’s word that the
Don’t get the blue stars mixed up with blue galaxies.
This is an actual photo of the most distant galaxy known.
Note the brilliant red coloring.
universe is expanding as recorded in Psalm 104:2  “Who coverest thyself with light as with a garment: Who stretchest out the heavens like a curtain.”

But what about the evolutionist? Can red shift and Hubble’s Law be used to explain the big bang theory? 

Stay tuned for next week and find out!

Until then, God bless and take care,
Willow Dressel

This week in the night skies; for the northern lats; “Monday, January 26
Earth to dodge a bullet! A relatively large near-Earth asteroid, 2004 BL86, is flying by our planet, passing us by three times the distance of the Moon. Tonight the asteroid will brighten to 9th magnitude as it crosses Cancer, nicely placed in the evening hours for telescope users in the Americas. See the article and detailed finder chart in the February Sky & Telescope, page 50, or our version online: Mountain-size Asteroid Glides Past Earth.”4

“Same for the southern lats; Near Earth Asteroid  2004 BL68 will  come close to Earth on 16:20 UT 26 January at distance of 0.008 AU (around 3.1 Earth-Moon distances). It is brightest at 04:00 UT on the 27th though. It has an estimated diameter of 680m (a bit over half a kilometer). The asteroid will be a reasonably bright magnitude 9.0 at closest approach, and it comes close to the iconic Beehive cluster when it is still bright. The flyby of 2004 BL86 will be the closest by any known asteroid of this size until 2027 when asteroid 1999 AN10 goes past Earth. It is also the brightest since 2012 DA14 in 2013. Unfortunately, from Australia the asteroid is below the horizon at its brightest. We get to see it when it is between magnitudes 10-9.6. The theshold for unaided eye viewing is magnitude 6, so the asteroid is quite dim. Australians can see the asteroid move from Puppis (on the late evening of the 26th, Australia day) through Monocerous and into Hydras. While the asteroid can be picked up by high end binoculars under dark sky conditions, for most observers small telescopes will be required.”5

References:
2Dobberpuhl, Delmar, The First Four Days, WinePress Publishing, Enumclaw, WA. 2011. Pp. 158-9.

5http://astroblogger.blogspot.comCreation The Written Truth

Monday, January 19, 2015

OORT CLOUD, KUIPIER BELT, COMETS, ASTRONOMY, PLANETS, HALLEY’S COMET, COMET LOVEJOY, SHORT PERIOD AND LONG PERIOD COMETS

WHAT EXACTLY IS AN ORT CLOUD?


Hi everyone!

How have you been this fine week? I have had ups and downs and cramming work, being busy so I was able to take a few days and visit with family. My one daughter an grandson are here for a short visit and then we were able to travel to visit my wonderful in-laws for a few days. So we were able to make the rounds one more time this year!

And speaking of making the rounds… that’s exactly what comets do. Comets are pieces of debris and ice that fling around our solar system once every so often (or not so often in some cases). But were do they come from to begin with? Let’s take a deeper look.

Comet Enke
But first there are a few things we must clear up. Because comets have little mass each close pass to the sun greatly reduces a comet’s size, and eventually comets fade away. They can’t survive billions of years. Astronomers cannot directly observe a comet forming or observe the origin. All these scientists can do is observe that comets have a limited life span due to, 1) loss of material every time it slings around the sun. By the way this is what causes the bright tail flaring out behind the comet. 2) Some are ejected  from the solar system due to gravitational pull with the planets (in particular Jupiter). This phenomenon has be observed and recorded many times. And 3) There is catastrophic loss due to collisions with other celestial objects including planets. The first time it was observed was in 1994.
Comet Lovejoy a long period comet

So when these three above mentioned loss mechanisms are factored into the equation, comets have a limited life-span much less than the estimated 4.6 billion year age of the universe that secular scientists have come up with. Well, this is a problem with the evolutionary estimate mentioned above. And secular scientists recognize this. So they came up with a theory to explain why long-period comets (those with orbital periods more than 200 years) are still visible today when the loss mechanisms would have deteriorated all comets long ago. Evolutionary astronomers have hypothesized (came up with an idea) that an “Oort cloud” and “Kuiper belt” exist far out somewhere in the outer regions of space thousands of times further from the sun than earth. They believe it is these clouds that resupply the solar system with comets.

While the supposed Kuiper belt (located beyond the orbit of Neptune) is believed to contain short-period comets (those with orbits under 200 years), the Oort cloud is thought to contain 
Halley’s comet; the most famous short period comet
billions of comet nuclei that secular scientists believe gets released when an occasional passing star or other celestial object (possibly a galactic tide) pulls comets from the Oort cloud that then fall into the inner solar system. “According to the theory, this icy material was sent out to the Oort cloud in the outer reaches of the solar system by the gravity of the newly formed planets during the big bang. All earlier studies ignored collisions between the comet nuclei during this process.

“[But a] new study has considered these collisions and has found that most of the comets would have been destroyed by collisions. Thus, instead of having a combined mass of perhaps 40 Earths, the Oort cloud should have at most the mass of about a single Earth. It is doubtful that this is enough mass to account for the comets that we see. The researchers postulate ‘escape valves’3 that could supply up to 3.5 Earth masses, but this is still ‘low compared to recent estimates of the mass of the Oort cloud’. They go on to ‘speculate that a distant source region for Oort cloud comets’ could resolve some other problems [emphasis added].

“Of course, if the solar system is much younger than most 
The Kuiper Belt is added hear as if it was fact.
astronomers think, then there is no need for the Oort comet cloud. Since it cannot be detected, the Oort cloud is not a scientific concept. This is not bad science, but non-science masquerading as science. The existence of comets is good evidence that the solar system is only a few thousand years old, just as the recent-creation model suggests.”1 “To explain why we see comets today, evolutionists have to assume that both the Oort cloud and the Kuiper belt exist. Recent creationists know from the Bible that the solar system is only thousands of years old, so there is no reason to assume that either the Oort cloud or Kuiper belt exist.”

Notice all the speculation these evolutionary astronomers come up with. I hope that someday they can see it takes far more faith to believe in these assumptions than in an Intelligent Designer. 

Until next time, take care and God bless!
Willow Dressel

This week in the night skies: For the northern lats; “Thursday, January 22, mutual event among Jupiter's moons. Early on Friday morning, from 4:06 to 4:20 a.m. EST, Callisto casts its shadow onto its neighbor moon Ganymede, dimming Ganymede by an obvious 1.4 magnitudes around the middle of that time. Ganymede is normally the brightest of Jupiter's four big moons. Even with just a small telescope, you can watch it briefly become a trace fainter than Callisto, which normally is the faintest. Ganymede, Callisto, and Europa will all appear close together. Friday, January 23; The Moon, dim Mars, and bright Venus form a big diagonal line in the west in twilight. And can you still detect Mercury? It's been fading fast day by day. Three shadows on Jupiter. Late this night Callisto, Io, and Europa are all casting their tiny black shadows onto Jupiter at once, from 1:27 to 1:52 a.m. Saturday morning EST (10:27 to 10 52 p.m. Friday evening PST). Then all three satellites themselves appear in front of Jupiter at once (and hence are practically invisible) from 2:08 to 2:12 a.m. EST.”1

For the souther lats; “Starting tonight there are a series of bright evening passes of the International Space Station lasting at least the 23rd. For many places in Southern Australia this series has the ISS gliding either above, through or under the Southern Cross, depending on where you are. On the 20th there is a bright pass which takes the ISS close to the bright star Sirius (in Melbourne it passes close to Orion's Belt instead). Some of the passes are very short although bright as the ISS enters Earth's shadow, but it is interesting to see the ISS wink out abruptly. When and what you will see is VERY location dependent, so you need to use either Heavens Above or CalSky to get site specific predictions for your location (I'm using Adelaide only as an example as ther are just too many of them).”2


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