BIBLE and EGYPTIAN CHRONOLOGY
Good morning everyone, and if you are reading this later in the day, good afternoon, or evening, or night! I just spent a wonderful weekend with my in-laws. I am one of the fortunate ones who’s husband has a great family. On the sad side, my sister-in-law has be diagnosed with colon cancer so any prayers for her well-being are welcomed. She is going in for an operation on February 5th. Thank you, all you kind people out there! It means a lot to me knowing you are praying too.
And speaking of family, let’s continue to take a look at our post-dispersal ancestors. Last week we looked at our history from Adam to the birth of Moses. Or if you prefer from the 1st to the 12th Egyptian dynasties, with an overlap of the 3rd and 4th dynasties about ¼ of the way through the 1st and continuing through the 2nd dynasty; and another overlap of the 11th dynasty at the end of the 5th and all of the 6th dynasty.
This week in our history lesson we will continue with Moses. “Traditional chronology has tried to fit Moses into the 18th or 19th dynasty where there is no evidence of Semitic slavery on a large scale, but Moses’ unusual adoption does fit into the late 12th dynasty. Amenemhet III, the dynasty’s sixth king, had two daughters but no sons. Josephus describes a childless daughter of pharaoh finding a child in the river and telling her father, ‘As I have received him [Moses] from the bounty of the river, in a wonderful manner, I thought proper to adopt him for my son and the heir of thy kingdom.’ Amenemhet III’s daughter Sobekneferu was childless and eventually ruled briefly as pharaoh herself, making Sobekneferu a likely candidate for Moses’ foster mother.”1
|Babies grave at eb-Eaba|
But physical evidence supporting the events in the Bible doesn’t stop there. Archeologists have been able to investigate and study cemeteries at Tell ed-Daba and Kahun. These areas had high slave populations in ancient times. And interestingly enough 65% of all the graves at tell ed-Daba (sometimes called Avaris--an ancient capitol--in the Nile delta region) are those of infants. In addition, ‘This extraordinarily high figure is consistent with the slaughter of Israelite infants ordered by Pharaoh. Also consistent with the prescribed slaughter are ‘wooden boxes . . . discovered underneath the floors of many houses at Kahun. They contained babies, sometimes buried two or three to a box, and aged only a few months at death.’
Examination of graves in a more recent section, datable to the late 13th dynasty, reveals shallow mass graves without the customary grave goods. These disorganized, crowded burials suggest the need for rapid burial of large numbers of people. The death of the firstborn in the tenth plague would have created just such a situation.”2
It gets even better than that! “In the 13th dynasty, during the reign of Neferhotep I, the Semitic slaves suddenly departed from Tel ed-Daba and Kahun.
Completion of the king’s pyramid was not the reason why Kahun’s inhabitants eventually deserted [Kahun], abandoning their tools and other possessions in the shops and houses. . . . The quantity, range, and type of articles of everyday use which were left behind suggest that the departure was sudden and unpremeditated.
|Several hands discovered in a pit grave|
Furthermore, Neferhotep I’s mummy has never been found, and his son Wahneferhotep did not ever reign, Neferhotep being succeeded by his brother Sobkhotpe IV. The sudden departure of the Semitic slave population fits the biblical account of the Hebrew slaves’ sudden exodus from Egypt after the tenth plague. The pharaoh’s mummy is missing because he died in the Red Sea with his army when he pursued the slaves, and his son never ruled because he died in the tenth plague.”3
There is no place else in Egyptian archeology that shows this consistency with the Bible. It is very logical to place the estimated times that these events occurred with the same events described in the Bible. It makes no sense to do anything else!
But if you still have doubts, there is one more thing. “Just a few years after the Exodus, the 13th dynasty ended, and the Second Intermediate Period, the time of Hyksos rule, began. The Hyksos have puzzled scholars, and everyone has a pet theory as to the Hyksos’s [rise]….
Since no evidence of chariots had been found in pre-Hyksos Egypt, tradition has held that the Hyksos were able to defeat Egypt because they possessed chariots. Therefore, since Exodus 14 describes Pharaoh’s pursuit with chariots, many have thought that the Exodus occurred after the Hyksos conquest. However, discoveries in recent years have confirmed the use of horses and chariots in the 12th and the 13th dynasties, prior to the Hyksos invasion. For example, an engraving from the 13th dynasty shows Khonsuemmwaset, a pharaoh’s son and army commander, with a pair of gloves, the symbol for charioteer, under his seat.
|Avaris is shown on the right in the Delta region|
The drowning of the Egyptian army in the Red Sea explains the conquest of the powerful nation of Egypt without a battle. Some have hypothesized that the Hyksos were Amalekites. Whoever the Hyksos were, they ruled Egypt from Avaris in the delta as the 15th and 16th dynasties, while their puppets in the 17th dynasty ruled from Thebes nearly 500 miles to the south. The 17th dynasty overthrew the Hyksos and began the New Kingdom.”4
When looked at with all the details lined up, the physical evidence once again concurs with the Bible and makes extraordinary sense!
Have a great week! God bless and take care!
This week in the night skies: for the northern hemisphere; “Thursday, January 23. Last-quarter Moon tonight (exact at 12:19 a.m. Friday morning EST). The Moon rises around 1 a.m. local time. To its upper right is the Mars-Spica pair, and rising to its lower left more than an hour later is Saturn. By dawn on the 24th they're lined up horizontally in the south to southwest. Jupiter's Great Red Spot transits around 9:23 p.m. EST.”5
For the southern hemisphere; “Starting tonight there are a series of bright evening passes of the International Space Station lasting a week. For many places in Australia this series has the ISS gliding either through or under the Southern cross (early in the week), depending on where you are, and coming close to bright Jupiter mid week.Some of the passes are very short although bright as the ISS enters Earth's shadow. Similarly none of the passes near Jupiter get very close as the ISS enters Earth's shadow, but it is interesting to see the ISS wink out abruptly.
When and what you will see is VERY location dependent, so you need to use either Heavens Above or CalSky to get site specific predictions for your location….Even the difference between the city centre and the suburbs can mean the difference between seeing the ISS go through Orion's belt or just below it.
Start looking several minutes before the pass is going to start to get yourself oriented and your eyes dark adapted. Be patient, on the night there may be slight differences in the time of the ISS appearing due to orbit changes not picked up by the predictions. The ISS will be moving reasonably fast when it passes near Jupiter, so be alert as it enters Earth's shadow very quickly, ending the view.”6
1-4Ham, Ken, The new answers book 2. Green Forest, AR. Master Books, 2012. Pp 246-248, 263.
Ham, Ken, The new answers book 2. Green Forest, AR. Master Books, 2012. Pp 246-248, 263.
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